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Planetary Satellite Ephemeris List

The following tables list the current JPL planetary satellite ephemeris files and their corresponding accuracies. These ephemeris files are used by HORIZONS to provide high-precision ephemerides for the planetary satellites. Tables are grouped by planet. Table column headings are described below.

Martian Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Phobos 401 MAR09701-Jan-1600 04-Jan-25002 52 0.00010.01 1
Deimos 402 MAR09701-Jan-1600 04-Jan-25003 103 0.00030.02 1

Galilean Satellites of Jupiter
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Io 501 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-22005 55 0.00030.002 3
Europa 502 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-22005 55 0.00030.002 3
Ganymede 503 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-22005 55 0.00030.002 3
Callisto 504 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-22005 55 0.00030.002 3

Jovian Inner Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Amalthea 505 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-2200200 400100 0.00030.13 3
Thebe 514 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-2200200 400100 0.00050.13 3
Adrastea 515 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-Jan-2200200 800100 0.00140.27 3
Metis 516 JUP31018-Dec-1900 14-JAN-2200200 600100 0.00090.20 3

Jovian Irregular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Himalia 506 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599200 300200 60.10 4
Elara 507 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599200 400200 100.13 4
Pasiphae 508 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599200 400250 300.13 4
Sinope 509 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599250 700300 400.23 4
Lysithea 510 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599300 800400 150.28 4
Carme 511 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599300 900300 500.30 4
Ananke 512 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599350 900400 600.30 4
Leda 513 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599500 1200400 500.40 4
Callirrhoe 517 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Themisto 518 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Magaclite 519 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Taygete 520 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Chaldene 521 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Harpalyke 522 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Kalyke 523 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Iocaste 524 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Erinome 525 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Isonoe 526 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Praxidike 527 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<30.0 4
Autonoe 528 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Thyone 529 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Hermippe 530 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Aitne 531 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Eurydome 532 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Euanthe 533 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Euporie 534 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Orthosie 535 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Sponde 536 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Kale 537 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Pasithee 538 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Hegemone 539 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Mneme 540 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Aoede 541 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Thelxinoe 542 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Arche 543 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Kallichore 544 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Helike 545 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Carpo 546 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Eukelade 547 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Cyllene 548 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Kore 549 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Herse 550 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2010 J 1 551 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2010 J 2 552 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
Dia 553 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4

Jovian Irregular Satellites (continued)
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
S/2003 J 2 55060 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 3 55061 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 4 55062 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 5 55063 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 9 55064 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1055065 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1255066 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1555067 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1655068 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1855069 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 1955070 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2003 J 2355071 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2011 J 1 55074 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4
S/2011 J 2 55075 JUP34006-Feb-1600 09-Dec-2599tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 4

Saturnian Regular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Mimas 601 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 505 tbd0.009 5
Enceladus 602 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 205 tbd0.004 5
Tethys 603 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 505 tbd0.009 5
Dione 604 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 205 tbd0.004 5
Rhea 605 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 205 tbd0.004 5
Titan 606 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 105 tbd0.002 5
Hyperion 607 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-260010 1005 tbd0.017 5
Iapetus 608 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 205 tbd0.004 5
Methone 632 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6
Pallene 633 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6
Anthe 649 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6
Aegaeon 653 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6

Saturnian Librating Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Helene 612 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-26005 205 tbd0.004 5
Telesto 613 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-20505 755 tbd0.013 6
Calypso 614 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-20505 755 tbd0.013 6
Polydeuces 634 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6

Saturnian Inner Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Janus 610 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-205010 505 tbd0.01 6
Epimetheus 611 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-205010 505 tbd0.01 6
Atlas 615 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-205010 2005 tbd0.04 6
Prometheus 616 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-205010 1005 tbd0.02 6
Pandora 617 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-205010 1005 tbd0.02 6
Pan 618 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6
Daphnis 635 SAT39326-Dec-1949 10-Jan-2050tbd tbdtbd tbdtbd 6

Saturnian Irregular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Phoebe 609 SAT38925-Dec-1599 07-Jan-260010 5010 tbd0.009 5
Ymir 619 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Paaliaq 620 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Tarvos 621 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Ijiraq 622 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Suttungr 623 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Kiviuq 624 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Mundilfari 625 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Albiorix 626 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Skadi 627 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Erriapus 628 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Siarnaq 629 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Thrymr 630 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Narvi 631 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<5.0 8
Aegir 636 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Bebhionn 637 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Bergelmir 638 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Bestla 639 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Farbauti 640 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Fenrir 641 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Fornjot 642 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Hati 643 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Hyrrokkin 644 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Kari 645 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Loge 646 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Skoll 647 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Surtur 648 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Jarnsaxa 650 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Greip 651 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
Tarqeq 652 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8

Saturnian Irregular Satellites (continued)
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
S/2004 S 7 65035 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2004 S 1265040 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2004 S 1365041 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2004 S 1765045 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2006 S 0165048 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2006 S 0365050 SAT36820-Dec-1899 02-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 8
S/2007 S 0265055 SAT36820-Dec-1899 07-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<20.0 8
S/2007 S 0365056 SAT36820-Dec-1899 07-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<20.0 8

Uranian Regular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Ariel 701 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-2100200 200200 0.0160.02 9
Umbriel 702 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-2100200 200200 0.0280.02 9
Titania 703 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-2100200 200200 0.0440.02 9
Oberon 704 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-2100200 200200 0.1000.02 9
Miranda 705 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-2100200 200200 0.0100.02 9

Uranian Inner Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Cordelia 706 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210050 14500200 0.151.1 11
Ophelia 707 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-2100500 75000250 0.95.7 11
Bianca 708 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210030 410230 0.00600.03 11
Cressida 709 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210025 220150 0.00350.02 11
Desdemona 710 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210025 220150 0.00350.02 11
Juliet 711 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210020 185150 0.00300.01 11
Portia 712 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210025 175150 0.00300.01 11
Rosalind 713 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210025 260180 0.00500.02 11
Belinda 714 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-210020 220150 0.00500.02 11
Puck 715 URA11118-Dec-1899 06-Jan-210020 200120 0.00500.02 9
Perdita 725 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 11
Mab 726 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 11
Cupid 727 URA09101-Jan-1900 01-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 11

Uranian Irregular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Caliban 716 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Sycorax 717 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Prospero 718 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Setebos 719 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Stephano 720 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Trinculo 721 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Ferdinand 722 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Francisco 723 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13
Margaret 724 URA11230-Dec-1899 25-Dec-2099tbd tbdtbd tbd<10.0 13

Neptunian Irregular Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Triton 801 NEP08103-Dec-1599 01-Jan-26002 15050 tbd0.007 14
Nereid 802 NEP08103-Dec-1599 01-Jan-26001600 300060 tbd0.20 14
Halimede 809 NEP08625-Jan-1800 29-Nov-2199tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 15
Psamathe 810 NEP08625-Jan-1800 29-Nov-2199tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 15
Sao 811 NEP08625-Jan-1800 29-Nov-2199tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 15
Laomedeia 812 NEP08625-Jan-1800 29-Nov-2199tbd tbdtbd tbd<60.0 15
Neso 813 NEP08625-Jan-1800 29-Nov-2199tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 15

Neptunian Inner Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Naiad 803 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-210030 8560 0.01670.05 17
Thalassa 804 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-210025 7040 0.00550.05 17
Despina 805 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-210020 5030 0.00080.05 17
Galatea 806 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-210015 3525 0.00100.05 17
Larissa 807 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-210015 3525 0.00100.05 17
Proteus 808 NEP08130-Dec-1799 02-Jan-22004 25050 tbd0.01 14
S/2004 N 01814 NEP08801-Jan-1900 04-Jan-2100tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 17

Pluto's Satellites
Sat. Code Ephem Start Time Stop Time R
(km)
T
(km)
N
(km)
P
(s)
RA/Dec
(arcsec)
Ref.
Charon 901 PLU05528-Dec-1599 04-Jan-260060 256 1.00.01 19
Nix 902 PLU05528-Dec-1599 04-Jan-2600110 1625210 tbd<1.0 19
Hydra 903 PLU05528-Dec-1599 04-Jan-260065 1510105 tbd<1.0 19
Kerberos 904 PLU05528-Dec-1599 04-Jan-2600tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 19
Styx 905 PLU05528-Dec-1599 04-Jan-2600tbd tbdtbd tbd<90.0 19

Table Column Headings
Code The JPL satellite code number
Ephem The JPL ephemeris identification number
Start Time Ephemeris start time
Stop Time Ephemeris stop time
R Radial position uncertainty (km)
T Downtrack position uncertainty (km)
N Out-of-plane position uncertainty (km)
P Orbital period uncertainty (s)
RA/Dec Geocentric astrometric position uncertainty (arcsec)


REFERENCES

1. Jacobson, R.A. and Lainey, V. (2014) ``Martian satellite Orbits and Ephemerides'', Planet. Space Sci. 102, 35.

2. Lieske, J.H. (1998) ``Galilean satellite ephemerides E5'', Astronomy & Astrophysics Supp. 129, 205.

3. Jacobson, R.A. (2013) JUP310 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

4.Brozovic, M. and Jacobson, R. A. (2016) ``The Orbits of Jupiter's Irregular Satellites'', Astronomical Journal submitted.

5. Jacobson, R.A. (2016) SAT389 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

6. Jacobson, R.A. (2016) SAT393 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

7. Jacobson, R. A., Spitale, J., Porco, C. C., Beurle, K. Cooper, N. J., Evans, M. W., and Murray, C. D. (2008) ``Revised Orbits of Saturn's Small Inner Satellites'', Astronomical Journal 135, 261.

8. Jacobson, R.A. (2014) SAT368 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

9. Jacobson, R. A. (2014) ``The Orbits of the Uranian Satellites and Rings, the Gravity Field of the Uranian System, and the Orientation of the Pole of Uranus'', Astronomical Journal 148, 76.

10. Jacobson, R.A. (1998) ``The orbits of the inner Uranian satellites from Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager 2 observations'', Astronomical Journal 115, 1195.

11. Brozovic, M. (2009) URA091 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

12.Brozovic, M. and Jacobson, R. A. (2009) ``The Orbits of the Outer Uranian Satellites'', Astronomical Journal 137, 3834.

13.Jacobson, R. A. and Brozovic, M. (2014) URA112 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

14. Jacobson, R. A. (2009) ``The Orbits of the Neptunian Satellites and the Orientation of the Pole of Neptune'', Astronomical Journal 137, 4322.

15.Brozovic, M., Jacobson, R. A., and Sheppard, S. S. (2011) ``The Orbits of the Outer Neptunian Satellites'', Astronomical Journal 141, 135.

16. Jacobson, R. A. and Owen, Jr., W. M. (2004) ``The orbits of the inner Neptunian satellites from Voyager, Earthbased, and Hubble Space Telescope observations'', Astronomical Journal 128, 1412.

17. Jacobson, R.A. (2015) NEP088 - JPL satellite ephemeris, an update to NEP050 (Jacobson and Owen 2004, AJ, 128.

18. Brozovic, M. and Jacobson, R. A. (2013) ``The Orbits, Masses of Pluto's Satellites'', Presented at The Pluto System on the Eve of Exploration by New Horizons: Perspectives, Predictions held at APL, Laurel, MD - PLU042 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

19. Jacobson, R. A. and Brozovic, M. and Buie, M. and Porter, S. and Showalter, M. and Spencer, J. and Stern, S. A. and Weaver, H. and Young, L. and Ennico, K. and Olkin, C., (2015) ``The Orbits and Masses of Pluto's Satellites after New Horizons'', Presented at the 47th AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting held at Gaylord Convention Center, National Harbor, MD - PLU055 - JPL satellite ephemeris.

20. Laskar, J. and Jacobson, R.A. (1987) ``GUST86. An analytical ephemeris of the Uranian satellites'', Astronomy & Astrophysics 188, 212.

21. Jacobson, R.A., Riedel, J.E. and Taylor, A.H. (1991) ``The orbits of Triton and Nereid from spacecraft and Earthbased observations'', Astronomy & Astrophysics 247, 565.

22. Owen, W.M., Vaughan, R.M, and Synnott, S.P. (1991) ``Orbits of the Six New Satellites of Neptune'', Astronomical Journal  101, 1511.

23. Showalter, M.R. (1991) ``Visual detection of 1981S13, Saturn's eighteenth satellite, and its role in the Encke gap'', Nature 351, 709.

24. Jacobson, R.A. (1998) ``The orbit of Phoebe from Earthbased and Voyager observations'', Astronomy & Astrophysics Supp.  128, 7.

25. Jacobson, R.A. (2000) ``The orbits of the outer Jovian satellites'', Astronomical Journal 120, 2679-2686.

26. Jacobson, R.A. (2004) ``The orbits of the major Saturnian satellites and the gravity field of Saturn from spacecraft and Earthbased observations'',Astronomical Journal 128, 492.

27. Jacobson, R. A. and French, R. G. (2004) ``Orbits and Masses of Saturn's Coorbital and F-ring Shepherding Satellites'', Icarus 172, 382.

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