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40 Harmonia
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2000040
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

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For accurate long-term ephemerides, please instead use our Horizons system.This orbit viewer was implemented using two-body methods, and hence should not be used for determining accurate long-term trajectories (over several years or decades) or planetary encounter circumstances.

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Orbital Elements at Epoch 2459000.5 (2020-May-31.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 115 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .04719165469052673 2.8312e-08  
a 2.266890392851937 2.5616e-09 au
q 2.159912084211196 6.4284e-08 au
i 4.257392573055582 3.0637e-06 deg
node 94.1888635523979 4.2061e-05 deg
peri 269.4974334870723 5.3755e-05 deg
M 223.272204639696 3.4e-05 deg
tp 2459473.976599817789
0.0001179 TDB
period 1246.649048097582
n .2887741345885347 4.8947e-10 deg/d
Q 2.373868701492678 2.6825e-09 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      5177  
   data-arc span      56714 days (155.27 yr)  
   first obs. used      1864-09-27  
   last obs. used      2020-01-07  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-N16  
   condition code      0  
   norm. resid. RMS      .42589  
   source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2020-Jan-28 17:13:01  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = 1.16168 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 2.79718 au 
 T_jup = 3.610 
[ show covariance matrix ]

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 7.00   n/a IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 21
diameter diameter 111.251 km 0.391 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (  
rotation period rot_per 8.910 h n/a LCDB (Rev. 2019-August); Warner et al., 2009 Published Reference List:
[Gehrels, T.; Owings, D. (1962) Astrophys. J. 135, 906-924.]
[Lagerkvist, C.-I. (1978) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 31, 361-381.]
[Gallardo, T.; Tancredi, G. (1987) Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrof. 15, 103-105.]
[Tancredi, G.; Gallardo, T. (1987) Bol. Asoc. Argent. Astron. 33, 361-368.]
[Michalowski, T. (1993) Icarus 106, 563-572.]
[Armstrong, J.C.; Nellermoe, B.L.; Reitzler, L.E. (1996) I.A.P.P.P. Comm. 63, 59-68.]
[Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.; Rodriguez, E. (1999) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 565-574.]
[Behrend, R. (2003) Observatoire de Geneve web site,]
[Alton, K.B. (2009) Minor Planet Bull. 36, 86.]
[Pilcher, F. (2009) Minor Planet Bull. 36, 133-136.]
[Pilcher, F. (2010) Minor Planet Bull. 37, 167.]
[Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B.D.; et al. (2011) Astron. Astrophys. 530, A134.]
[Hanus, J.; Marchis, F.; Durech, J. (2013) Icarus 226, 1045-1057.]
[Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.A.; Behrend, R.; et al. (2016) Astron. Astrophys. 586, A108.]
[Viikinkoski, M.; Hanus, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Marchis, F.; Durech, J. (2017) Astron. Astrophys. 607, A117.]
geometric albedo albedo 0.220   0.047 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (  
B-V BV 0.854   0.026 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.2 #obs=10; phase (min.=3.66, mean=13.95, max.=26.56) deg.
U-B UB 0.432   0.020 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.2 #obs=10; phase (min.=3.66, mean=13.95, max.=26.56) deg.
Tholen spectral type spec_T S   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 used 7 color indices; used ground-based radiometric albedo
SMASSII spectral type spec_B S   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 based on a high-resolution spectrum by Xu et al. (1995) or Bus and Binzel (2002)

40 Harmonia          Discovered 1856-Mar-31 by Goldschmidt, H. at Paris
Reference: DISCOVERY.DBLast Updated: 2003-08-29

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Alternate Designations
 1950 XU 
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]
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