Skip Page Navigation
NASA JPL Caltech
NASA Logo - Jet Propulsion Laboratory + View the NASA Portal
+ Center for Near-Earth Object Studies
JPL Home Earth Solar System Stars & Galaxies Technology
JPL Solar System Dynamics
BODIES ORBITS EPHEMERIDES TOOLS PHYSICAL DATA DISCOVERY FAQ SITE MAP
JPL Small-Body Database Browser
Search: [ help ]  
(2018 QW1)
Classification: Apollo [NEO]          SPK-ID: 3827150
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Close-Approach Data ]

[ hide orbit diagram ]
Orbit Diagram
[ switch to new HTML5 viewer ]

Note: This Java-based orbit viewer will eventually be retired.

Note: Make sure you have Java enabled on your browser to see the applet. This applet is provided as a 3D orbit visualization tool. The applet was implemented using two-body methods, and hence should not be used for determining accurate long-term trajectories (over several years or decades) or planetary encounter circumstances. For accurate long-term ephemerides, please instead use our Horizons system.

Note: If the applet is not working, here are some notes that might help.
Orbit Viewer

Additional Notes: the orbits shown in the applet are color coded. The planets are white lines, and the asteroid/comet is a blue line. The bright white line indicates the portion of the orbit that is above the ecliptic plane, and the darker portion is below the ecliptic plane. Likewise for the asteroid/comet orbit, the light blue indicates the portion above the ecliptic plane, and the dark blue the portion below the ecliptic plane.

Orbit Viewer applet originally written and kindly provided by Osamu Ajiki (AstroArts), and further modified by Ron Baalke (JPL).


Orbital Elements at Epoch 2459000.5 (2020-May-31.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 9 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .3254921780876003 0.0001512  
a 1.03368962773068 0.00012659 au
q .6972317393340599 7.0928e-05 au
i 16.76783678149708 0.0081605 deg
node 336.4247335482804 0.00063994 deg
peri 254.8869811837387 0.0092046 deg
M 306.1616648880303 0.13756 deg
tp 2459057.908048668400
(2020-Jul-27.40804867)
0.15722 TDB
period 383.8695508997836
1.05
0.070518
0.0001931
d
yr
n .9378185874763085 0.00017228 deg/d
Q 1.370147516127299 0.0001678 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      61  
   data-arc span      28 days  
   first obs. used      2018-08-31  
   last obs. used      2018-09-28  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-N16  
   condition code      6  
   norm. resid. RMS      .31879  
   source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2018-Sep-28 06:30:03  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = .000451084 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 3.69022 au 
 T_jup = 5.841 
[ show covariance matrix ]

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Close-Approach Data ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 22.5   .56214 E2018S67 autocmod 2.6n

[ hide close-approach data ]
Close-Approach Data   ...sorted by Date/Time (TDB)
Date/Time (TDB) Time Uncertainty
(days_HH:MM)
Body Nominal Distance (au) Minimum Distance (au) Maximum Distance (au) V-relative (km/s) V-infinity (km/s) JD (TDB) Time Uncertainty (minutes) Semi-major axis (km) Semi-minor axis (km) range-LOV angle (deg) N-sigma BP Orbit Ref. Reference Modified
1907-Jan-30 00:28 1_14:12 Venus 0.130994748368737 0.122012613162855 0.295522034142023 15.0562803084225 15.0551792426832 2417605.519313261 2292.09101837848 11045363.556888 213.455960080622 68.666911215048 112152.977498662 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1908-Jan-25 13:32 3_05:29 Earth 0.291394654960119 0.205377189456977 0.38255409465919 20.5292962031295 20.5288507916294 2417966.063920481 4649.08312456394 4822554.82203728 136.172534094943 -22.4695725483501 101024.16129888 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1909-Feb-12 12:49 01:10 Earth 0.102166916440417 0.0894380805141215 0.116377014080453 12.9846804809027 12.9826718303145 2418350.034289717 69.9292553636742 910425.595945228 330.233022226748 42.0004989732534 34420.4473184577 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1968-Mar-19 01:59 04:43 Venus 0.14185863917019 0.141510697716907 0.188912110542865 13.1262952989984 13.1251290526969 2439934.582550500 283.450151910459 5746493.72630922 58.6047509787183 -85.9904158631173 314441.538304348 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1970-Jan-20 04:26 1_21:20 Earth 0.389079938440897 0.340231545454251 0.438379502108454 23.4515208445765 23.4512288295432 2440606.684936667 2720.16765497789 2534765.51914711 185.852935389578 -14.9900627023295 70943.8676636288 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1971-Feb-06 13:05 1_01:43 Earth 0.117498682516702 0.107863040626881 0.131067219596397 15.0690377260574 15.0675327987372 2440989.045241901 1543.3100260491 1222103.48376138 109.180190162784 -61.2303405564901 106172.151803437 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1972-Mar-11 20:26 15:10 Earth 0.245878422774318 0.245659582348943 0.246134150858334 11.0130452332495 11.0120612132669 2441388.351674478 910.161282501912 151074.31186044 875.202358922607 85.513492003801 19885.1773127929 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1972-Dec-04 12:07 2_10:15 Earth 0.493559864407404 0.487849964175995 0.499495353617029 8.86590741543442 8.86529848981995 2441656.004534310 3494.62986409851 601016.329182443 458.57763499805 61.1089505023663 92311.5025780472 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1973-May-06 00:44 5_19:39 Earth 0.387978761290676 0.383868264811832 0.392102129510741 12.0826232370774 12.082054837971 2441808.530285122 8379.28914853074 233590.914785963 314.20366642316 28.4796407564133 71838.0889610594 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1973-Oct-25 14:14 4_16:15 Earth 0.480337249298302 0.472376104526616 0.488557383953092 9.62645703666219 9.62588078444146 2441981.093327097 6734.83889707397 687147.179934657 342.93355694708 -54.03452763722 101731.556744228 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1975-May-14 16:11 1_20:40 Venus 0.13389197357542 0.126534741895355 0.20102998171077 15.1860904471035 15.1850224165117 2442547.174374558 2680.35877876829 5607606.82994409 293.389016386712 70.9278016582974 79364.3546824 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1975-Aug-29 05:47 2_20:34 Earth 0.0293306500817481 0.00132836338865322 0.118875662832846 12.5695729525602 12.5623436724355 2442653.740938080 4113.61225319021 4466468.36902101 4.32229182952108 -2.62390689007081 44372.9370797224 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1976-Sep-08 22:39 3_15:45 Earth 0.267132757533174 0.179185663050266 0.35508236152501 20.1169623403088 20.1164665156078 2443030.443587408 5264.71344727329 4385818.63869101 30.7875276946397 0.609566217628438 12337.1720695374 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1986-Jan-20 09:46 05:23 Venus 0.141447176980971 0.141072614391155 0.179454300648844 13.6838912265468 13.6827692523919 2446450.906772398 322.764872218057 5018887.87385598 56.1040345687349 85.838420412187 305142.932542635 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1991-Jan-16 17:31 3_23:03 Earth 0.459565979738236 0.382458951390027 0.536884375010246 25.584578409705 25.584351794971 2448273.230080014 5702.660693787 3881529.66144521 317.011418763785 -7.17511452546498 24568.8348279329 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1992-Feb-01 15:43 4_16:09 Earth 0.179033629232633 0.117012820756691 0.250006544812844 17.1699153572772 17.1690485539899 2448654.154893967 6728.71496636908 3876949.15141757 294.000052885918 -28.7594042198082 38258.6731567819 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1994-Nov-08 00:40 9_16:37 Earth 0.499017863387761 0.489977452015783 0.509211563849757 9.48572266520446 9.48515975551061 2449664.527686746 13957.2252049054 1289174.25819943 468.952932354119 -68.1325508709639 93041.8331808844 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1996-Aug-25 17:19 11:41 Earth 0.152664603328205 0.0780565661113886 0.229317343037813 10.1924386530328 10.1907261459239 2450321.221311690 701.196215000805 3873279.59757673 20.6213487439103 -11.3952102029861 128162.188526319 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1997-Sep-04 05:36 2_22:14 Earth 0.144874156132918 0.0715614024427681 0.218202309133956 16.8257916107841 16.8246985104199 2450695.733495674 4214.01440996213 3656953.18296193 18.0676277687479 1.09717538220446 20535.8183512724 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
1998-Sep-16 19:47 2_22:24 Earth 0.437983077061858 0.370806040679504 0.505159947663632 24.9881185429267 24.9878750851877 2451073.324592873 4223.84968183691 3349816.11784258 41.7102471501062 -0.116670061263036 2785.39044598467 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2003-Nov-23 21:26 16:18 Venus 0.146778871620797 0.141594197186598 0.173531322828632 12.407688736047 12.4064962992201 2452967.392749056 978.066903289839 3074658.74949341 64.2873319237234 -74.7256602113407 338578.549750889 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2013-Jan-25 02:27 20:47 Earth 0.292533335655269 0.276324917851731 0.30880937699677 20.5709125349353 20.5704697548192 2456317.601942668 1246.58910461128 839754.750705646 282.046255516251 -15.294575933659 35987.9538163975 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2014-Feb-12 16:57 1_01:13 Earth 0.0995734517078212 0.0971314963089225 0.103426201694841 13.062351312268 13.0603025975209 2456701.206207954 1512.89428798375 612567.973359801 293.079620478438 75.0438648225254 42217.7653052433 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2015-Mar-27 18:55 1_21:18 Earth 0.300332227786615 0.295097323415289 0.306668582768992 11.4765698433998 11.4757967838626 2457109.288039901 2717.69284977579 952166.619714619 372.643644872719 72.3293868956493 70599.6996455575 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2016-May-18 00:28 1_03:20 Earth 0.396679515683299 0.396633282291032 0.396725787995656 11.8060121597983 11.8054432023055 2457526.519205527 1640.3116422229 6719.07369868062 437.47230143446 70.3369588020653 42913.9701747297 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2016-Oct-16 19:15 17:59 Earth 0.458695767856326 0.45562060233588 0.461774512127293 9.59501147742094 9.59440605872728 2457678.302113967 1079.04530652392 166206.455385881 229.740838954078 -22.6111810198041 75679.0321113309 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2017-Sep-01 16:18 09:40 Earth 0.272252343064966 0.268953164682589 0.275561159341143 9.04709796991362 9.04601614394052 2457998.178926298 579.829287750477 183495.04822993 164.885558050061 -26.118604619463 70551.4445182712 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2018-Aug-30 22:03 < 00:01 Earth 0.0233702526036627 0.0233365531518587 0.0234039519395266 13.7812820225657 13.7730066083231 2458361.418609259 0.0450745659303965 1678.44542518396 7.54313042931485 0.131670295537553 1491.54611338268 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2019-Sep-12 14:15 03:40 Earth 0.331069064573586 0.327582988409909 0.334555139959697 21.9109703093087 21.9106029967437 2458739.093633362 220.0069879169 173834.663123432 34.3967165771597 -0.204374737023072 4466.39467376693 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2028-Nov-20 04:43 17:58 Venus 0.147156696356876 0.130298383000776 0.17616252457135 16.0587482544047 16.0578293091225 2462095.696282929 1077.65158908263 2417576.06409906 255.857857301846 60.4951621756236 89971.5176153317 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2034-Jan-28 04:21 2_23:18 Earth 0.248800822743823 0.198722330951006 0.30000838069269 19.2857402893568 19.2851849857645 2463990.681067891 4277.68543917848 2660223.69650633 298.113837751545 -17.9291397920761 34033.1649340171 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2035-Feb-18 08:01 5_16:12 Earth 0.125098986269238 0.0953533417595083 0.165793108268215 11.9951390634331 11.9933632986991 2464376.834091147 8171.51675373023 2562290.74298073 290.224918851538 44.3181553793622 39986.9769875713 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2037-Oct-05 23:42 8_21:58 Earth 0.423907006241497 0.393292257858758 0.454852430601184 9.52211527211789 9.52145515137223 2465337.487677437 12837.7471349194 1644538.58749581 172.399700858245 -20.9868707951345 87395.2082903252 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2038-Aug-26 06:34 16:04 Earth 0.180730822949183 0.116564610004626 0.247448732081076 9.77142599221084 9.76991710868716 2465661.773319693 963.596544629159 3435161.34062732 39.8192124089501 -16.9107778935575 111849.302544085 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2039-Sep-04 05:03 2_17:44 Earth 0.127956975544008 0.059397096346205 0.196524347516608 16.3750457650969 16.3737740707752 2466035.710273821 3944.22879569689 3419339.44043565 16.1175984439755 0.827583234974619 15334.5405165476 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2040-Sep-16 08:24 2_23:08 Earth 0.433884936288178 0.366846307093966 0.500923554735948 24.8772464478948 24.8769995953376 2466413.850051470 4267.99418263932 3342943.39174334 40.8669761046181 -0.251817551015673 6280.05952418551 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2054-Jan-18 18:31 4_04:32 Earth 0.425200278820634 0.343381109812616 0.507360523013477 24.5517964111703 24.5515411775978 2471286.271858207 6032.19144818558 4132371.03478107 309.79059577572 -8.20308937718987 26507.1957118246 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2054-Feb-10 00:12 1_15:05 Venus 0.144295471932739 0.127930336993416 0.2201044996987 15.8419027807426 15.8409527844272 2471308.508541458 2344.55564522451 5603426.69472992 254.666213766503 62.4536295769678 91744.2974000834 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2055-Feb-04 15:32 5_06:23 Earth 0.140449790020702 0.09238734423574 0.211690799517805 15.965448511523 15.9642602109639 2471668.147469684 7583.03362965576 4156634.22845919 291.407382169437 -39.227603237892 39832.2209203311 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2059-Aug-28 14:47 2_16:13 Earth 0.0561280375828583 0.000842454469955197 0.143122571480428 11.9941688691029 11.9902103384501 2473334.116281945 3853.31038083914 4338376.071108 8.90035703100148 -0.874890477394993 14850.7806451467 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2060-Sep-08 12:50 3_07:34 Earth 0.249211968177219 0.170497581991884 0.327926931349214 19.6268989938159 19.6263542431106 2473711.034775616 4773.56061942452 3925228.12034103 25.3736300475312 0.443448218116632 10088.044284509 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2071-Dec-14 21:59 02:04 Venus 0.135106119387568 0.1329830011044 0.13730705704618 12.3835996092198 12.3823016238881 2477825.416318663 124.070670838792 194356.968794744 611.351092323294 -56.2946773407769 36001.2880982055 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2075-Jan-21 13:51 1_10:49 Earth 0.375997409874011 0.352080901693494 0.399933297244659 23.0772558099036 23.0769487336533 2478959.077011824 2088.82036063532 1200672.0670556 369.486198705404 -6.43059233879405 15411.0608302466 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2076-Feb-07 21:39 2_07:26 Earth 0.109932780157353 0.0958010124449179 0.129962658395258 14.7965894162331 14.7949512892518 2479341.402139336 3325.98714111791 1536095.42607604 334.092007148633 -55.2969785298461 35551.5266724966 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2077-Mar-14 03:07 7_15:43 Earth 0.253050906736916 0.2427697138368 0.29934340402164 11.0195336990057 11.0185781343627 2479741.630190719 11022.5321519107 5173168.82689558 292.777120160059 73.6160040907418 74066.5738479053 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2077-Dec-04 08:50 6_20:58 Earth 0.494745157771465 0.486677358126777 0.503790037529166 8.87424397267217 8.87363707665025 2480006.868376999 9898.09782118676 1176761.63358221 533.982009842237 68.7229562436484 85874.7907577898 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2078-May-08 02:50 8_15:36 Earth 0.389755716775727 0.382305672723688 0.397210887437799 12.0371024127168 12.036534465268 2480161.617801853 12456.4397809081 378257.473324818 188.269256039095 10.7131306606296 56674.3963012146 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2078-Oct-25 15:45 6_14:52 Earth 0.479340466148181 0.465703308508363 0.493375876251168 9.58348992713603 9.5829098874415 2480332.156163904 9532.21088077003 975121.771371507 330.370679535169 -44.939322106285 95561.3834098047 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2080-Aug-28 20:57 2_05:36 Earth 0.0267044524821286 0.00080316827088721 0.0941960861110614 12.6418036612289 12.6339086041984 2481005.372848871 3216.38022055253 3366037.87398611 6.63949622843754 1.75489174081054 16817.2639842074 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2081-Sep-09 14:36 2_00:47 Earth 0.267619340348492 0.217902810798984 0.317335534309626 20.1419949816199 20.1415006735433 2481382.108569196 2926.59112455764 2479108.91024178 27.7823076718713 0.0457720137502721 796.075864244076 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2089-Oct-17 03:03 12:33 Venus 0.132116693467989 0.126446356459604 0.208803050515186 12.5267971189741 12.5254849373466 2484341.626782900 752.76216878632 6377424.29270308 300.832302982867 -73.1600919454234 88254.5155206102 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2096-Jan-15 20:11 9_19:14 Earth 0.489290726549351 0.305642731379608 0.673601963641743 26.5103227263294 26.5101173113833 2486623.341314934 14114.4392073541 9218208.55045393 346.824580592127 -5.18708232926161 17450.4947691344 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2101-Aug-27 07:41 5_18:16 Earth 0.195064424500419 0.0662593351644575 0.477556181291138 9.59514125729771 9.59371756828325 2488672.819983369 8295.74529092973 14435267.8745097 51.8967653388317 -19.8595506187264 107689.351775764 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
2157-Jan-29 22:28 06:42 Venus 0.138684784267314 0.138666322908586 0.153843303294222 13.5062022956128 13.5050429163704 2508917.436403706 402.379725432337 3213434.68110989 59.7514957514544 89.0988516819905 330982.094282178 T 9 CATAB v2.0e-lin.ifort 2018-Sep-28 06:30:09 2018-Dec-11 17:22
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Close-Approach Data ]
ABOUT SSD CREDITS/AWARDS PRIVACY/COPYRIGHT GLOSSARY LINKS
FirstGov 2020-Dec-03 05:08 UT
(server date/time)  
NASA Home Page
Site Manager:   Ryan S. Park
Webmaster  Alan B. Chamberlin