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9994 Grotius (4028 P-L)
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2009994
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

[ show orbit diagram ]
Orbital Elements at Epoch 2459000.5 (2020-May-31.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 26 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .1759198560334745 2.6414e-08  
a 2.585127150526182 9.394e-09 au
q 2.13035195437739 6.7938e-08 au
i 7.18021219463305 4.5278e-06 deg
node 207.1425585553629 3.1781e-05 deg
peri 224.1588436362939 3.6533e-05 deg
M 81.30626569544603 1.7291e-05 deg
tp 2458657.619486318495
(2019-Jun-23.11948632)
7.2136e-05 TDB
period 1518.173093666696
4.16
8.2753e-06
2.266e-08
d
yr
n .2371271111981882 1.2925e-09 deg/d
Q 3.039902346674974 1.1047e-08 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      1739  
   data-arc span      21794 days (59.67 yr)  
   first obs. used      1960-09-24  
   last obs. used      2020-05-26  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-N16  
   condition code      0  
   norm. resid. RMS      .47632  
   source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2020-Nov-13 03:09:27  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = 1.15112 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 2.28405 au 
 T_jup = 3.390 
[ hide covariance matrix ]
Orbital Elements at Epoch 2457122.5 (2015-Apr-10.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 26 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .1740585245860247 2.6238e-08  
q 2.135655125794271 6.7253e-08 au
tp 2457139.561433457735
(2015-Apr-27.06143346)
7.0474e-05 TDB
node 207.1892825990653 3.1826e-05 deg
peri 224.3360942935625 3.6687e-05 deg
i 7.172366677727625 4.5265e-06 deg
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      1739  
   data-arc span      21794 days (59.67 yr)  
   first obs. used      1960-09-24  
   last obs. used      2020-05-26  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-N16  
   condition code      0  
   norm. resid. RMS      .47632  
   source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2020-Nov-13 03:09:27  

Additional Information
 Jupiter MOID = 2.28405 au 
 T_jup = 3.390 
Orbit Covariance (6×6)
  e q tp node peri i
e 6.884448394523803E-16 -1.753164637065134E-15 -4.301228848940035E-13 2.583544088720221E-15 -1.283209394509106E-13 1.862049445012343E-17
q -1.753164637065134E-15 4.522948208567195E-15 1.262152683191823E-12 -4.933554282901562E-15 3.672460891330821E-13 -4.706922415559673E-16
tp -4.301228848940035E-13 1.262152683191823E-12 4.966636005995272E-9 -3.060964651325578E-12 1.304279827484407E-9 -5.070072139546495E-12
node 2.583544088720221E-15 -4.933554282901562E-15 -3.060964651325578E-12 1.012899320744227E-9 -1.005363179106099E-9 -7.614805042166133E-11
peri -1.283209394509106E-13 3.672460891330821E-13 1.304279827484407E-9 -1.005363179106099E-9 1.345900744192792E-9 7.424486281742355E-11
i 1.862049445012343E-17 -4.706922415559673E-16 -5.070072139546495E-12 -7.614805042166133E-11 7.424486281742355E-11 2.048941132636157E-11

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 14.3   n/a PDS3 (MPC 33669)  
diameter diameter 3.746 km 0.146 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...741...68M)  
rotation period rot_per 9.219 h n/a LCDB (Rev. 2020-October); Warner et al., 2009 Result based on less than full coverage, so that the period may be wrong by 30 percent or so.
Published Reference List:
[Waszczak, A.; Chang, C.-K.; Ofeck, E.O.; Laher, F.; et al. (2015) Astron. J. 150, A75.]
geometric albedo albedo 0.263   0.040 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...741...68M)  

9994 Grotius           Discovered 1960 Sept. 24 by C. J. van Houten and I. van Houten-Groeneveld on Palomar Schmidt plates taken by T. Gehrels.
The works Mare Liberum (1609; "Free Access to the Ocean for all nations") and De Jure Belli ac Pacis (1625; "On the Law of War and Peace") of the Dutch statesman Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, 1583-1645) laid the foundation for modern international law.
NOTE: some special characters may not display properly (any characters within {} are an attempt to place the proper accent above a character)
Reference: 20001111/MPCPages.arcLast Updated: 2013-03-29

[ show close-approach data ]
Alternate Designations
 4028 P-L = 1981 WH9 
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]
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