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JPL Small-Body Database Browser
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22 Kalliope
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2000022
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

[ show orbit diagram ]
Orbital Elements at Epoch 2458600.5 (2019-Apr-27.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 96 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .09767688894721703 3.5138e-08  
a 2.914849073772346 6.6841e-09 au
q 2.630135684495586 1.0021e-07 au
i 13.71531190288359 3.7754e-06 deg
node 66.05277031409484 1.1809e-05 deg
peri 356.0820815376883 1.898e-05 deg
M 196.5714329438891 1.6395e-05 deg
tp 2459425.678697435213
(2021-Jul-30.17869744)
8.4058e-05 TDB
period 1817.701375149938
4.98
6.2523e-06
1.712e-08
d
yr
n .1980523340751197 6.8123e-10 deg/d
Q 3.199562463049106 7.3369e-09 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      2977  
   data-arc span      60459 days (165.53 yr)  
   first obs. used      1854-04-14  
   last obs. used      2019-10-25  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-N16  
   condition code      0  
   norm. resid. RMS      .4527  
   source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2019-Nov-07 01:48:11  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = 1.64321 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 2.12719 au 
 T_jup = 3.232 
[ show covariance matrix ]

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Mission Design | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances | Close-Approach Data ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 6.5   n/a MPO492748 IRAS observations used: 11
magnitude slope G 0.21   n/a PDS3 (MPC 17257) Fit
diameter diameter 167.536 km 3.053 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...791..121M)  
GM GM 0.491 km^3/s^2 0.05 Margot & Brown, Science 300, 1939-1942 (2003) Low density M-type (chondritic) confirmed as binary system in 2001.
bulk density density 2.37 g/cm^3 0.4 Margot & Brown, Science 300, 1939-1942 (2003)  
rotation period rot_per 4.1483 h n/a LCDB (Rev. 2019-January); Warner et al., 2009 Published Reference List:
[Ahmad, I.I. (1954) Astrophys. J. 120, 551-560.]
[Gehrels, T.; Owings, D. (1962) Astrophys. J. 135, 906-924.]
[Scaltriti, F.; Zappala, V.; Stanzel, R. (1978) Icarus 34, 93-98.]
[Zappala, V.; van Houten-Groeneveld, I. (1979) Icarus 40, 289-296.]
[Lupishko, D.F.; Bel'skaya, I.N.; Tupieva, F.A.; Chernova, G.P. (1982) Astron. Vestn. 16, 101-108; Solar System Res. 16, 75-80.]
[Magnusson, P. (1986) Icarus 68, 1-39.]
[Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R.; Greenberg, R.; et al. (1987) Icarus 70, 191-245.]
[Drummond, J.D.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R. (1988) Icarus 76, 19-77.]
[Magnusson, P. (1990) Icarus 85, 229-240.]
[Michalowski, T.; Velichko, F.P. (1990) Acta Astronomica 40, 321-332.]
[Drummond, J.D.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R. (1991) Icarus 89, 44-64.]
[De Angelis, G. (1992) in Physical properties of small solar system bodies. A. Brahic, J.-C. Gerard, J. Surdej, eds. Universite de Liege, Institut d'Astrophysique, Liege, pp. 195-201.]
[De Angelis, G. (1995) Planet. Space Sci. 43, 649-682.]
[Piironen, J.; Magnusson, P.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Williams, I.P.; et al. (1997) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 489-497.]
[Kaasalainen, M.; Torppa, J.; Piironen, J. (2002) Icarus 159, 369-395.]
[Trigo-Rodriquez, J.M.; Caso, A.S. (2003) Minor Planet Bull. 30, 26-27.]
[Behrend, R. (2004) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
[Behrend, R. (2006) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
[Alton, K.B. (2007) Minor Planet Bull. 34, 56.]
[Behrend, R. (2007) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
[Gungor, C. (2007) Minor Planet Bull. 34, 53.]
[Warner, B.D. (2007) Minor Planet Bull. 34, 72-77.]
[Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Herald, D.; Dunham, D.; et al. (2011) Icarus 214, 652-670.]
[Proyecto ECLA (Silvia Alonso Perez) (2011) http://www.geocities.com/proyectoecla/]
[Hamanowa, H.; Hamanowa, H. (2011) http://www2.ocn.ne.jp/~hamaten/astlcdata.htm]
[Marchis, F. (2011) http://astro.berkeley.edu/~fmarchis/Science/Asteroids]
[Behrend, R. (2012) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
[Garlitz, J. (2012) http://eoni.com/~garlitzj/Period.htm]
[Hanus, J.; Marchis, F.; Durech, J. (2013) Icarus 226, 1045-1057.]
[Behrend, R. (2016) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
[Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.A.; Behrend, R.; et al. (2016) Astron. Astrophys. 586, A108.]
[Hanus, J.; Viikinkoski, M.; Marchis, F.; Durech, J.; et al (2017) Astron. Astrophys. 601, A114.]
[Behrend, R. (2018) Observatoire de Geneve web site, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html]
geometric albedo albedo 0.166   0.005 urn:nasa:pds:neowise_diameters_albedos::2.0[mainbelt] (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...791..121M)  
B-V BV 0.715   0.023 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.2 #obs=33; phase (min.=.44, mean=9.45, max.=21.85) deg.
U-B UB 0.234   0.043 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.2 #obs=16; phase (min.=.44, mean=5.30, max.=11.85) deg.
Tholen spectral type spec_T M   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 used 7 color indices; used ground-based radiometric albedo
SMASSII spectral type spec_B X   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 based on a high-resolution spectrum by Xu et al. (1995) or Bus and Binzel (2002)

22 Kalliope          Discovered 1852-Nov-16 by Hind, J. R. at London
Reference: DISCOVERY.DBLast Updated: 2003-08-29

[ show close-approach data ]
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