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Revised: Mar 27, 2018 Tesla Roadster (spacecraft) -143205
(solution #10)
Tesla Roadster (AKA: Starman, 2018-017A)
NOTE:
Visibility:
20th magnitude until Feb 20,
22nd magnitude through mid-April
Brighter than 26th magnitude into mid-June
2018-Mar-01: Radial non-gravitational acceleration A1 estimated from data
(nominally solar radiation pressure)
2018-Mar-27: Two reporting sites (J04 & K93) extend data arc one month.
A1 estimate of s10 is reduced 1.2-sigma compared to s9.
LAUNCHED:
2018-Feb-06 20:45 UTC by Falcon Heavy (FH-1) from Kennedy Space Center, USA
(launchpad 39A)
BACKGROUND:
Dummy payload from the first launch of SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch vehicle.
Consists of a standard Tesla Roadster automobile and a spacesuit-wearing
mannequin nicknamed "Starman".
Also includes a Hot Wheels toy model Roadster on the car's dash with a
mini-Starman inside. A data storage device placed inside the car contains
a copy of Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" novels. A plaque on the attachment
fitting between the Falcon Heavy upper stage and the Tesla is etched with
the names of more than 6,000 SpaceX employees.
After orbiting the Earth for 5 hours, a third burn by the second stage was
completed at approximately 02:30 UTC Feb 7, placing the dummy payload in a
heliocentric orbit having a perihelion of 0.99 au and aphelion ~1.67 au.
The object stack consists of a Merlin 1D Vacuum second stage with Extended
Nozzle, Payload Attachment Fitting, and Tesla Roadster on mount.
Roadster mass: ~1250 kg (with batteries), ~800 kg (without ESS/batteries)
TRAJECTORY:
This trajectory is based on JPL solution #10, a fit to 364 ground-based
optical astrometric measurements spanning 2018 Feb 8.2 to March 19.1
Trajectory name Start (TDB) Stop (TDB)
-------------------------------- ----------------- -----------------
tesla_s10 2018-Feb-07 03:00 2090-Jan-01 00:00
Encounter predictions for s10 (w/radial 1/r^2 non-gravitational acceleration)
Date (TDB) Body CA Dist MinDist MaxDist Vrel TCA3Sg Nsigs P_i/p
----------------- ----- ------- ------- ------- ------ ------ ------ ------
2018 Feb 08.09690 Moon .000936 .000936 .000936 3.961 0.41 47509. 0.000
2020 Oct 07.26768 Mars .049530 .048923 .050242 8.150 27.40 6.63E5 0.000
2035 Apr 22.35934 Mars .015504 .004378 .027978 8.219 170.47 31247. 0.000
2047 Jan 11.89023 Earth .031919 .031716 .032123 4.493 249.70 78398. 0.000
2050 Mar 19.52949 Earth .119113 .113778 .124369 7.397 538.54 2.61E5 0.000
2052 Sep 05.15606 Mars .176363 .172469 .180319 5.738 2185.5 8.68E5 0.000
2067 Apr 15.90202 Mars .043270 .025712 .061471 7.192 1115.0 42565. 0.000
2084 Sep 17.92284 Mars .116962 .093449 .141170 9.753 787.45 6.55E5 0.000
2085 Jan 01.96490 Earth .083063 .049368 .112186 6.224 5208.9 1.00E5 0.000
2088 Mar 09.95754 Earth .049146 .033491 .063322 5.106 4505.2 1.17E5 0.000
Date = Nominal encounter time (Barycentric Dynamical Time)
CA_Dist = Highest probability close approach distance to body, au
MinDist = 3-sigma minimum encounter distance, au
MaxDist = 3-sigma maximum encounter distance, au
Vrel = Relative velocity at nominal encounter time, km/s
TCA3Sg = 3-sigma uncertainty in close encounter time, minutes
Nsigs = Number of sigmas to encounter body at nominal encounter time
P_i/p = Linearized probability of impact
NOTE:
How to obtain optional statistical uncertainty output & generate an SPK file:
Since this is a spacecraft and not part of the asteroid and comet database
which normally holds orbit covariance data, some functions like statistical
output and SPK file generation aren't automatically available for this object.
However, such optional extended output is possible with some extra steps.
To propagate statistical uncertainties for this object, the full statistical
orbit solution (given below) can be manually input back into Horizons as a
"user-defined object" using the telnet or e-mail interfaces (not possible
with the browser interface).
To do this and activate statistical or SPK file output ...
Using the telnet interface (command-line "telnet ssd.jpl.nasa.gov 6775"),
enter ";" to drop into user-input mode then cut-and-paste each line shown
below, one at a time. The lines of numbers after SRC must be in the order
shown.
For SPK file generation, only the first four lines need be input: the
EPOCH, orbital element lines starting with "EC" and "OM", and the
non-gravitational acceleration model (line starting with "A1").
SRC lines are needed only for (optional) statistical output and the
H & G values only for (optional) visual magnitude output.
EPOCH= 2458164.5
EC= .2585469914787243 QR= .9860596231806226 TP= 2458153.620483722645
OM= 317.3549094214575 W = 177.3203028023227 IN= 1.088451292866039
EST=A1 A1= 2.960683526738534E-9 R0= 1. ALN= 1. NM= 2. NK= 0.
SRC= -2.057839421666802E-7 7.966781900129693E-9 -1.720426606925749E-9
-4.722542923190676E-7 2.197679131968537E-9 -1.230413802372471E-6
-2.500290306870021E-7 -3.361070889248183E-9 -1.765963020682463E-5
-3.047907547965759E-7 -4.640202045440381E-7 -4.271481116360573E-9
2.657789409005983E-5 1.726818074599357E-6 -1.359673746135991E-6
-2.478836748687631E-5 -2.309863204867099E-8 -.0002351644867403515
-1.875169281895894E-6 -2.063647245529267E-6 -1.670539551586607E-6
-4.019207817588603E-6 -3.128134469402375E-9 -3.034540373576942E-5
1.733661692209129E-7 -7.052327854535979E-7 -2.650181216776434E-7
-1.310976135791957E-10
H= 25.289 G= 0.15
When done, press a blank return to exit input mode.
Enter "J" at the prompt to indicate heliocentric J2000 ecliptic data has
been supplied. Then at the next prompt, input an arbitrary name
(i.e., Roadster).
Horizons will then proceed as usual, but with statistical output and SPK
file generation now available as options.
A basic and identical tracking ephemeris can be produced without doing any
of this, but statistical uncertainty quantities requested will be marked
"n.a.", meaning not available, and SPK generation won't be an option.
NOTE: long-term predictions
Over time, trajectory prediction errors could increase more rapidly than
the formal statistics indicate due to unmodeled thermal re-radiation or
outgassing accelerations that are not currently characterized but may exist.
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Ephemeris / WWW_USER Sun Dec 10 12:04:30 2023 Pasadena, USA / Horizons
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Target body name: SpaceX Roadster (spacecraft) (-143205) {source: tesla_s10}
Center body name: Sun (10) {source: DE441}
Center-site name: BODY CENTER
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Start time : A.D. 2018-May-01 00:00:00.0000 TDB
Stop time : A.D. 2018-May-01 00:00:01.0000 TDB
Step-size : 60 minutes
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Center geodetic : 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 {E-lon(deg),Lat(deg),Alt(km)}
Center cylindric: 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 {E-lon(deg),Dxy(km),Dz(km)}
Center radii : 696000.0, 696000.0, 696000.0 km {Equator_a, b, pole_c}
Keplerian GM : 2.9591220828411951E-04 au^3/d^2
Output units : AU-D, deg, Julian Day Number (Tp)
Calendar mode : Mixed Julian/Gregorian
Output type : GEOMETRIC osculating elements
Output format : 10
Reference frame : Ecliptic of J2000.0
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JDTDB
EC QR IN
OM W Tp
N MA TA
A AD PR
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$$SOE
2458239.500000000 = A.D. 2018-May-01 00:00:00.0000 TDB
EC= 2.557139145150149E-01 QR= 9.861328039126530E-01 IN= 1.077401411844724E+00
OM= 3.171101404321498E+02 W = 1.774780880137648E+02 Tp= 2458153.514911412261
N = 6.462652656094077E-01 MA= 5.556917611469391E+01 TA= 8.380059617304492E+01
A = 1.324937847346801E+00 AD= 1.663742890780949E+00 PR= 5.570468028488757E+02
$$EOE
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TIME
Barycentric Dynamical Time ("TDB" or T_eph) output was requested. This
continuous coordinate time is equivalent to the relativistic proper time
of a clock at rest in a reference frame co-moving with the solar system
barycenter but outside the system's gravity well. It is the independent
variable in the solar system relativistic equations of motion.
TDB runs at a uniform rate of one SI second per second and is independent
of irregularities in Earth's rotation.
CALENDAR SYSTEM
Mixed calendar mode was active such that calendar dates after AD 1582-Oct-15
(if any) are in the modern Gregorian system. Dates prior to 1582-Oct-5 (if any)
are in the Julian calendar system, which is automatically extended for dates
prior to its adoption on 45-Jan-1 BC. The Julian calendar is useful for
matching historical dates. The Gregorian calendar more accurately corresponds
to the Earth's orbital motion and seasons. A "Gregorian-only" calendar mode is
available if such physical events are the primary interest.
REFERENCE FRAME AND COORDINATES
Ecliptic at the standard reference epoch
Reference epoch: J2000.0
X-Y plane: adopted Earth orbital plane at the reference epoch
Note: IAU76 obliquity of 84381.448 arcseconds wrt ICRF X-Y plane
X-axis : ICRF
Z-axis : perpendicular to the X-Y plane in the directional (+ or -) sense
of Earth's north pole at the reference epoch.
Symbol meaning [1 au= 149597870.700 km, 1 day= 86400.0 s]:
JDTDB Julian Day Number, Barycentric Dynamical Time
EC Eccentricity, e
QR Periapsis distance, q (au)
IN Inclination w.r.t X-Y plane, i (degrees)
OM Longitude of Ascending Node, OMEGA, (degrees)
W Argument of Perifocus, w (degrees)
Tp Time of periapsis (Julian Day Number)
N Mean motion, n (degrees/day)
MA Mean anomaly, M (degrees)
TA True anomaly, nu (degrees)
A Semi-major axis, a (au)
AD Apoapsis distance (au)
PR Sidereal orbit period (day)
ABERRATIONS AND CORRECTIONS
Geometric osculating elements have NO corrections or aberrations applied.
Computations by ...
Solar System Dynamics Group, Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System
4800 Oak Grove Drive, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Pasadena, CA 91109 USA
General site: https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
Mailing list: https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/email_list.html
System news : https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons/news.html
User Guide : https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons/manual.html
Connect : browser https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons/app.html#/x
API https://ssd-api.jpl.nasa.gov/doc/horizons.html
command-line telnet ssd.jpl.nasa.gov 6775
e-mail/batch https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/ftp/ssd/hrzn_batch.txt
scripts https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/ftp/ssd/SCRIPTS
Author : Jon.D.Giorgini@jpl.nasa.gov
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!$$SOF
COMMAND = -143205
CENTER = '500@10'
MAKE_EPHEM = YES
TABLE_TYPE = ELEMENTS
START_TIME = 2018-05-01
STOP_TIME = '2018-05-01 00:00:01'
OUT_UNITS = AU-D
REF_PLANE = ECLIPTIC
REF_SYSTEM = J2000
TP_TYPE = ABSOLUTE
ELEM_LABELS = YES
CSV_FORMAT = NO
OBJ_DATA = YES