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Outer Planet Gravity Fields

The gravity field data below are used in the planetary satellite orbit determination model. References are shown in square brackets (e.g. [1]) following the particular value.

Parameters Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
GMsystem
(km3/s2)
126712764.1± 2.7[1] 37940585. ± 1.[2] 5794556.4± 4.3[4] 6836527. ± 10.[5]
GMplanet
(km3/s2)
126686536.1± 2.7[1] 37931208. ± 1.[2] 5793951.3± 4.4[4] 6835100. ± 10.[5]
Radius (km) 71492.[1] 60330.[2] 25559.[4] 25225.[5]
J2 x 106 14695.62± 0.29[1] 16290.71± 0.27[2] 3510.68± 0.70[4] 3408.43± 4.50[5]
J3 x 106                
J4 x 106 -591.31± 2.06[1] -935.83± 2.77[2] -34.17± 1.30[4] -33.40± 2.90[5]
J6 x 106 20.78± 4.87[1] 86.14± 9.64[2]        
J8 x 106     -10.[3]        
C22 x 106                
S22 x 106                
RTA (deg) 268.05708a ± 0.00027 [1] 40.58279b ± 0.00201 [2] 77.310 a ± 0.002 [4] 299.375 c ± 0.14 [5]
DEC (deg) 64.49582a ± 0.00006 [1] 83.53763b ± 0.00021 [2] 15.172 a ± 0.002 [4] 42.949 c ± 0.03 [5]
RTA rate
(deg/century)
-0.00655a [1] -0.04229b [2] 0.0 [4] 0.57978c [5]
DEC rate
(deg/century)
0.00248a [1] -0.00444b [2] 0.0 [4] -0.05702c [5]
 a  pole epoch: 1 January 2000 12:00:00 ET
 b  pole epoch: 12 November 1980 23:47:23 ET
 c  pole epoch: 25 August 1989 00:00:00 ET

References

1. Jacobson, R.A.: 2013, JUP310 orbit solution
2. Jacobson, R. A., Antreasian, P. G., Bordi, J. J., Criddle, K. E., Ionasescu,R., Jones, J. B., Mackenzie, R. A., Pelletier, F. J., Owen Jr., W. M., Roth, D. C., and Stauch, J. R.: 2006 ``The gravity field of the Saturnian system from satellite observations and spacecraft tracking data'', Astronomical Journal 132, 6.
3. Nicholson, P. D., and Porco, C. C.: 1988, ``A New Constraint on Saturn's Zonal Gravity Harmonics from Voyager Observations of an Eccentric Ringlet'', Journal of Geophysical Research 93, 10209.
4. Jacobson, R. A.: 2014 ``The Orbits of the Uranian Satellites and Rings, the Gravity Field of the Uranian System, and the Orientation of the Pole of Uranus'',Astronomical Journal 148,76-88.
5. Jacobson, R. A.: 2009 ``The Orbits of the Neptunian Satellites and the Orientation of the Pole of Neptune'', Astronomical Journal 137,4322.
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