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21 Lutetia
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2000021
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]

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Orbit Diagram
Note: Make sure you have Java enabled on your browser to see the applet. This applet is provided as a 3D orbit visualization tool. The applet was implemented using 2-body methods, and hence should not be used for determining accurate long-term trajectories (over several years or decades) or planetary encounter circumstances. For accurate long-term ephemerides, please instead use our Horizons system.

Note: If the applet has stopped working because of a recent Java upgrade, here is a possible workaround.
Orbit Viewer

Additional Notes: the orbits shown in the applet are color coded. The planets are white lines, and the asteroid/comet is a blue line. The bright white line indicates the portion of the orbit that is above the ecliptic plane, and the darker portion is below the ecliptic plane. Likewise for the asteroid/comet orbit, the light blue indicates the portion above the ecliptic plane, and the dark blue the portion below the ecliptic plane.

Orbit Viewer applet originally written and kindly provided by Osamu Ajiki (AstroArts), and further modified by Ron Baalke (JPL).

Orbital Elements at Epoch 2457600.5 (2016-Jul-31.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 96 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .1646109676782466 2.576e-08  
a 2.434460861699387 3.8003e-09 au
q 2.033721903480233 6.3288e-08 au
i 3.063719985568583 3.5864e-06 deg
node 80.88013104955785 5.9245e-05 deg
peri 250.0481321842666 6.0056e-05 deg
M 84.78262914980995 1.2199e-05 deg
tp 2457273.756466335442
4.6688e-05 JED
period 1387.402977458912
n .2594776037307888 6.0758e-10 deg/d
Q 2.83519981991854 4.4259e-09 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      4062  
   data-arc span      54711 days (149.79 yr)  
   first obs. used      1866-04-06  
   last obs. used      2016-01-21  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-BIG16  
   condition code      0  
   fit RMS      .39641  
   data source      ORB  
   producer      Otto Matic  
   solution date      2016-Feb-25 17:34:50  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = 1.02469 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 2.50014 au 
 T_jup = 3.485 
[ show covariance matrix ]

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 7.35 mag n/a IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 15
magnitude slope G 0.11   n/a PDS3 (MPC 17257) Fit
diameter diameter 95.76 km 4.1 IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 15
rotation period rot_per 8.1655 h n/a LCDB (Rev. 2016-February); Warner et al., 2009 Published Reference List:
[Lupishko, D.F.; Bel'skaya, I.N.; Tupieva, F.A. (1983) Pis'ma Astron. Zh. 9, 691-694; Sov. Astron. Lett. 9, 358-360.]
[Zappala, V.; Di Martino, M.; Knezevic, Z.; Djurasevic, G. (1984) Astron. Astrophys. 130, 208-210.]
[Lupishko, D.F.; Velichko, F.P. (1987) Kin. Fiz. Neb. Tel 3(1), 57-65; Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies 3(1), 63-71.]
[Michalowski, T. (1992) in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991. A.W. Harris, E. Bowell, eds. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, pp. 417-419.]
[Michalowski, T. (1993) Icarus 106, 563-572.]
[De Angelis, G. (1995) Planet. Space Sci. 43, 649-682.]
[Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Erikson, A.; Debehogne, H.; Festin, L.; et al. (1995) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 115-129.]
[Michalowski, T. (1996) Icarus 123, 456-462.]
[Szabo, Gy.; Sarneczky, K.; Kiss, L.L. (1999) in Proc. IAU Coll. 173, Evolution and Source Regions of Asteroids and Comets, 185-188.]
[Torppa, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Michalowski, T.; Kwiatkowski, T.; et al. (2003) Icarus 164, 346-383.]
[Behrend, R. (2003) Observatoire de Geneve web site,]
[Faury, G. (2009) Bul. Amer. Astron. Soc. 40.]
[Belskaya, I.N.; Fornasier, S.; Krugly, Yu.N.; Shevchenko, V.G.; et al. (2010) Astron. Astrophys. 515, A29.]
[Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Leyrat, C.; Merline, W.J.; et al. (2010) Astron. Astrophys. 523, A94.]
[Behrend, R. (2010) Observatoire de Geneve web site,]
geometric albedo albedo 0.2212   0.020 IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 15
B-V BV .686 mag .027 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.1 #obs=17; phase (min.=3.08, mean=16.43, max.=25.04) deg.
U-B UB .189 mag .017 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.1 #obs=11; phase (min.=3.08, mean=13.14, max.=23.99) deg.
Tholen spectral type spec_T M   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 used 7 color indices; used ground-based radiometric albedo
SMASSII spectral type spec_B Xk   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 based on a high-resolution spectrum by Xu et al. (1995) or Bus and Binzel (2002)

21 Lutetia          Discovered 1852-Nov-15 by Goldschmidt, H. at Paris
Reference: DISCOVERY.DBLast Updated: 2003-08-29
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]
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