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16 Psyche
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2000016
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]

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Orbit Diagram
Note: Make sure you have Java enabled on your browser to see the applet. This applet is provided as a 3D orbit visualization tool. The applet was implemented using 2-body methods, and hence should not be used for determining accurate long-term trajectories (over several years or decades) or planetary encounter circumstances. For accurate long-term ephemerides, please instead use our Horizons system.

Note: If the applet has stopped working because of a recent Java upgrade, here is a possible workaround.
Orbit Viewer

Additional Notes: the orbits shown in the applet are color coded. The planets are white lines, and the asteroid/comet is a blue line. The bright white line indicates the portion of the orbit that is above the ecliptic plane, and the darker portion is below the ecliptic plane. Likewise for the asteroid/comet orbit, the light blue indicates the portion above the ecliptic plane, and the dark blue the portion below the ecliptic plane.

Orbit Viewer applet originally written and kindly provided by Osamu Ajiki (AstroArts), and further modified by Ron Baalke (JPL).

Orbital Elements at Epoch 2457600.5 (2016-Jul-31.0) TDB
Reference: JPL 83 (heliocentric ecliptic J2000)
 Element Value Uncertainty (1-sigma)   Units 
e .1359391883722294 3.3119e-08  
a 2.921990428376531 5.5136e-09 au
q 2.524777421111602 9.6631e-08 au
i 3.099046099258383 4.469e-06 deg
node 150.276290037812 7.3657e-05 deg
peri 227.141805598413 7.5321e-05 deg
M 93.03868679421561 1.7292e-05 deg
tp 2457129.004359644961
8.7076e-05 JED
period 1824.385493566179
n .197326717006666 5.5851e-10 deg/d
Q 3.319203435641459 6.2631e-09 au
  Orbit Determination Parameters
   # obs. used (total)      2493  
   data-arc span      58859 days (161.15 yr)  
   first obs. used      1852-03-17  
   last obs. used      2013-05-11  
   planetary ephem.      DE431  
   SB-pert. ephem.      SB431-BIG16  
   condition code      0  
   fit RMS      .6037  
   data source      ORB  
   producer      Davide Farnocchia  
   solution date      2013-Jul-16 08:47:02  

Additional Information
 Earth MOID = 1.52632 au 
 Jupiter MOID = 2.13827 au 
 T_jup = 3.263 
[ show covariance matrix ]

Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]

Physical Parameter Table
Parameter Symbol Value Units Sigma Reference Notes
absolute magnitude H 5.90 mag n/a IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 32
magnitude slope G 0.20   n/a PDS3 (MPC 17257) Fit
diameter diameter 253.16 km 4.0 IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 32
GM GM 4.49 km^3/s^2 0.37 Kuzmanoski and Kovacevic [A&A, v.395, p.L17-L19 (2002)]  
bulk density density 6.98 g/cm^3 0.58 Kuzmanoski and Kovacevic [A&A, v.395, p.L17-L19 (2002)]  
rotation period rot_per 4.196 h n/a LCDB (Rev. 2016-February); Warner et al., 2009 Published Reference List:
[Van Houten-Groeneveld, I.; van Houten, C.J. (1958) Astrophys. J. 127, 253-273.]
[Taylor, R.C.; Gehrels, T.; Capen, R.C. (1976) Astron. J. 81, 778-786.]
[Chang, Y.C.; Zhou, X.-h.; Yang, X.-y.; Zhang, Y.-y.; et al. (1981) Acta Astron. Sin. 22, 169-173; Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 434-437.]
[Zhou, X.-h.; Yang, X.-y. (1981) Acta Astron. Sin. 22, 378-382; Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 6, 57-59 (1982, 1982ChA&A...6...57Z).]
[Zhou, X.-z.; Yang, X.-y.; Wu, Z.-x. (1982) Acta Astron. Sin. 23, 349-352; Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 7, 129-131 (1983, 1983ChA&A...7..129Z).]
[Lupishko, D.F.; Bel'skaya, I.N.; Tupieva, F.A.; Chernova, G.P. (1982) Astron. Vestn. 16, 101-108; Solar System Res. 16, 75-80.]
[Lupishko, D.F.; Bel'skaya, I.N. (1983) in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors. C.-I. Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, eds. Uppsala, pp. 55-61.]
[Tedesco, E.F.; Taylor, R.C.; Drummond, J.; Harwood, D.; et al. (1983) Icarus 54, 30-37.]
[Tedesco, E.F.; Taylor, R.C. (1985) Icarus 61, 2, 241-251.]
[Magnusson, P. (1986) Icarus 68, 1-39.]
[Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R.; Greenberg, R.; et al. (1987) Icarus 70, 191-245.]
[Drummond, J.D.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R. (1988) Icarus 76, 19-77.]
[Magnusson, P. (1990) Icarus 85, 229-240.]
[Drummond, J.D.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R. (1991) Icarus 89, 44-64.]
[Broglia, P.; Manara, A. (1992) Astron. Astrophys. 257, 770-772.]
[De Angelis, G. (1993) Planet. Space Sci. 41, 285-290.]
[Piironen, J.; Magnusson, P.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Williams, I.P.; et al. (1997) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 489-497.]
[Kaasalainen, M.; Torppa, J.; Piironen, J. (2002) Icarus 159, 369-395.]
[Behrend, R. (2003) Observatoire de Geneve web site,]
[Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Herald, D.; Dunham, D.; et al. (2011) Icarus 214, 652-670.]
[Proyecto ECLA (Silvia Alonso Perez) (2011)]
[Hanus, J.; Marchis, F.; Durech, J. (2013) Icarus 226, 1045-1057.]
[Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.A.; Behrend, R.; et al. (2015) Astron. Astrophys. 586, A108.]
[Warner, B.D. (2016) Minor Planet Bul. 43, 137-140.]
geometric albedo albedo 0.1203   0.004 IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0 IRAS observations used: 32
B-V BV .729 mag .023 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.1 #obs=7; phase (min.=.95, mean=9.89, max.=21.42) deg.
U-B UB .299 mag .058 EAR-A-5-DDR-UBV-MEAN-VALUES-V1.1 #obs=71; phase (min.=.95, mean=9.30, max.=21.42) deg.
Tholen spectral type spec_T M   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 used 7 color indices; used ground-based radiometric albedo
SMASSII spectral type spec_B X   n/a EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V4.0 based on a high-resolution spectrum by Xu et al. (1995) or Bus and Binzel (2002)

16 Psyche          Discovered 1852-Mar-17 by De Gasparis, A. at Naples
Reference: DISCOVERY.DBLast Updated: 2003-08-29
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]
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